来自礁岩暗处的诱惑

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来自礁岩养殖暗处的诱惑

原作者:Michael Lukaczyn

翻译:    Kittyworm

 

随着海水养殖爱好的发展,越来越多人开始注意到无共生藻珊瑚(azooxanthellate为了尊重原文由此简称为azoox。个人更偏向NPS: non-photosynthetic corals)。 有些人甚至认为azoox将会成为下一个替代SPS的珊瑚养殖最高挑战。厂家开始使用azoox的图片来坐宣传,公司开始推出针对性的食物以及产品链,网络论坛为其设置了新的版块,近期甚至出现了专门针对azoox的社团。不仅如此,在过去的几个月里,活体网店开始专门设置分类版块出售NPS。很明显,市场已经认可了这个趋势和需求。

 

为何选择无共生藻珊瑚?或许吸引人的地方是每个月不用为了养活美丽的造礁石珊瑚而去支付昂贵的电费?仅此以足够吸引一个水族爱好者走向黑暗。又或许只是简单的想避开常见的以“SPS”“LPS”主导的海缸。不管如何,从技术上来说,azoox并非无法成功养活的,不过它会挑战你的珊瑚养殖能力以及你的时间和耐心。

 

无共生藻珊瑚:

 

首先我们需要知道我们面对的是什么:无共生藻,非造礁珊瑚,他们依靠浮游生物,碎屑,溶解在海水中的有机以及无机物为生。知道它们需要什么只是成功的一部分。频繁的喂食以及有效的喂食方式让事情变的更困难。在生产NPS食物方面,两家公司走在最前端-Reef Nutrition & Fauna Marin。两者都不断的通过和爱好者的合作来研发和完善食品以及添加剂来给azoox以及滤食性珊瑚提供他们所需的营养。

 

传统的喂食是通过人工方式使用虹吸管或者注射器完成的,这样做能够达成目的,可是这样坚持不懈的一日4次以上是个令人畏惧的任务。自动化大部分的喂食能减轻负担。干的食物可以通过自动喂食器完成。添加冷藏饲料也是必须的,同时也会相对更加复杂。为了始终保持食物冷藏以及避免饲料在滴定管道中变质,滴定泵以及罐装食品都必须安置在冷藏柜里。滴定的计量可以通过控制器或者独立滴定泵来完成(比如GHL,BM滴定泵)。哪怕是使用了最好的自动化系统,你还是需要通过人工针对性喂食来确保每个珊瑚的需求被满足。记录喂了什么以及往缸里添加了什么是很重要的。你可以简单的用记事本,电子数据表,或者日历来完成记录。由于饲养Azoox还处于试验阶段,有一个详细的记录来查看哪些措施针对个别珊瑚以及整个系统有效以及无效是很有用的。

 

由于需要不断的喂食,在一个无光合作用系统里保证水质是件非常具有挑战性的事,很快NO3,PO4将会成为一个噩梦。相对来说Azoox珊瑚可以忍受稍微较高一点点的营养盐,可是系统里其他的生物不行,所以需要和其他礁岩缸一样保持良好的水质。保持水质需要一个十分周密的计划,要不断的评估以及改正。活性炭能够帮助保持水质清晰透彻,它能很好的减少水中的黄色素。使用活性炭前注意清洗,以避免活性炭颗粒流入系统里。臭氧机常常因为它的复杂性以及前期投入而被忽略。它能增加水的透彻度以及蛋分的效率。

 

拥有一个azoox缸你需要学会爱上换水。1周2-3次的大量换水能够对你的系统起到很大的帮助,这是我强烈推荐的。大量换水时需要缓慢完成,确保更换的新水和缸内水的数据吻合(水温,ph,硬度,钙等等),否则是很不好的饲养习惯。

 

我认为控制磷酸盐最好的方法是在反应器里使用氧化铁(GFO)。使用GFO能够很好的控制磷酸盐,注意在大量喂食的情况下你需要更频繁的关注PO4含量因为GFO在这样的环境下会更快的消耗掉。氯化镧也是一个性价比较高的去磷酸盐方式。氯化镧在纽约里弗黑德的亚特兰大海水世界已经成功运用,部分水族爱好者也已开始使用这个方式,不过在使用前请先学会如何安全正确的使用这个产品。氯化镧过量能很快的消灭你所有的生物,所以谨慎使用。

 

添加益生菌(Probitics原著可能拼错了)是另一个控制你营养盐的办法。不管是使用FaunaMarin Ultralith System, ZEO, Prodibio,或者VSV(伏特加,糖,醋),这些系统都显示了他们控制营养盐以及在为滤食性生物提供菌类食物上的优势。固体碳源-生物豆(NP,荷兰豆)的使用更让那些不想手动添加以上产品的人省了不少事。在短时间内NP豆在减少NO3以及提供菌类浮游食物上起到显著效果,并小范围的减少了PO4。这种使用PHA聚合体成分的可生化降解塑料来控制营养盐在这个爱好里还是一种比较新的尝试,长期效应还有待考验。

 

通过时间的投入,耐心,完善的计划,和饲养经验 无共生藻珊瑚 是可以在家庭中成功饲养的。期待下一期,我想讨论azoox的采购以及选择的一些基础知识以及如何让它们融入有光学作用的珊瑚缸。

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以下为原文:

An Attraction to the Darkside of Reefkeeping
by Michael Lukaczyn

As the hobby continues to evolve there is an emerging trend that you will start observe with increasing frequency--aquarist attraction azooxanthellate corals (azoox). Some have said that azoox corals are, or very well could be, the next "SPS" in the hobby and the next frontier in reef keeping. Manufacturers have been using their images to sell their products, companies are creating specific foods and product lines marketed directly toward their care, online communities have generated specific sub-forums on their sites, and recently an azoox specific community has been created. It doesn't stop there, as online livestock vendors over the last few months have been adding sections to their sites for the sale of non-photosynthetic corals. Clearly, the market has recognized the trend and demand.

 


Perhaps one of the most recognized azoox in the hobby, Tubastrea sp.
Photo by Gary Parr


Why azooxanthellate corals? Could it be the attraction of not having to pay your local energy provider a second mortgage each month just to keep those beautiful hermatypic scleractinian corals? That alone could pull an aquarist to the dark side. It could simply be the allure of wanting to step outside the norm in a land of "SPS" & "LPS" dominated aquariums. Either way, azooxanthellate corals are not technically impossible to keep, but will challenge your reef keeping ability, as well as your time and patience.

Azooxanthellate corals

First and foremost we need to understand what we are dealing with; corals that do not harbor symbiotic algae are known as azooxanthellate and are ahermatypic (non-reef building). Therefore, they rely on sources of plankton, detritus, and dissolved organic and inorganic matter for their survival. Having knowledge of what they need is only one part of the formula for success; frequency of feeding and the method of how it is administered make the formula even more complex. On the food side of the non-photosynthetic world, two companies have stood at the forefront of providing non-photosynthetic aquarists with what they need--Reef Nutrition & Fauna Marin. Both consistently collaborate with the hobbyists to develop and refine foods/additives to support the nutritional needs of azooxanthellate corals and filter feeders.

 


Upclose and personal with Nephthyigorgia sp. (Chili Coral)
Photo by Gary Parr


Dosing foods by hand, turkey baster or syringe have been traditional methods in feeding azooxanthellates and these methods continue to serve their purpose, but doing so four or more times a day, seven days a week, three hundred sixty five days a year can turn into a daunting endeavor. Automating the majority of your feeding regime can assist in reducing this task. Dry feeds can be measured out and added to a round-o-matic or barrel type feeder over a floating feeding ring, and can be set by the user to broadcast feed the aquarium at their desired interval. Dosing of refrigerated foods is necessary and more complicated. In order to keep the foods consistently refrigerated and to prevent the feeds from fouling in the peristaltic lines, dosing pumps and bottled foods have to be located inside the refrigeration unit. Volumes of foods dosed and intervals of feeding can all be set up through an aquarium controller or a stand alone computerized dosing pump set-up. Even with the best automation, you will still need to get your hands wet with spot feeding corals to ensure individual species needs are met. It is important to document what you are feeding and what you put into the tank. You can easily set up a simple note book, log it into a spreadsheet, or even your daily calendar. Since keeping Azoox corals is largely an experimental affair, having documentation to reference back to is a tool that is vital in keeping track of what has worked or hasn't worked with particular animals and the system as a whole.

 


Automated refrigerated feeding system controlled by GHL Profilux 3 on author's aquarium


Keeping water quality at optimal levels in a non-photosynthetic system can be challenging due to the constant feeding of the system and nitrate and phosphate control can soon become a husbandry nightmare. Azooxanthellate corals can tolerate mildly elevated levels of waste, but the other inhabitants in your system may not, so attention to pristine water quality is the same as in any reef -keeping endeavor. A well thought out plan has to be developed, evaluated frequently, and adjusted as needed to keep water quality managed. Water clarity is most simply aided by the use of activated carbon. It is an excellent, cost effective method to reduce the yellowing compounds in the water. While using carbon, insure that it is cleaned well to reduce fine particles of carbon that can be released into the water column. Often overlooked due to its complexity and initial set up costs, is the use of ozone. Its ability to improve water clarity and skimmer efficiency makes it an excellent tool to have at your disposal.

Owning an azoox aquarium you will learn to love doing water changes. Doing large water changes two or more times weekly is extremely helpful in managing your system and something I strongly recommend. When removing large volumes of water from your aquarium; it should be done slowly and close to already in tank parameters (temperature, ph, Alkalinity, Calcium, etc). Changing out large volumes without checking parameters of both tank and fresh mixed water is not a good reefkeeping practice.

For phosphate control, honestly, the best method in my opinion is to use Granular Ferric Oxide (GFO) in a reactor. With GFO, phosphates are extremely manageable. Keep in mind that with heavy feeding you will need to monitor PO4 more often than you might be used to since GFO can become exhausted quickly in this type of environment. Lanthanum chloride has also been used successfully as a cost effective measure to win the battle against phosphates. It has become a staple to control phosphates at Atlantis Marine World in Riverhead and select aquarists have also ventured into this realm as well, but please read up well on how to use the product safely and properly. Overdoses of Lanthanum Cloride can quickly eliminate all your livestock in a short period of time, so use caution.

Dosing of Probitics is another method of keeping your nutrients at bay. Whether it is the use of the Fauna Marin Ultralith System, ZEO, Prodibio, or VSV (Vodka, Sugar, Vinegar), these systems have all shown to have their advantages in controlling nutrients in the aquarium and creating a bacteria food source for filter feeders. The introduction of solid carbon dosing via bio-pellets pellets on the market can assist those who don't want the manual obligation of dosing any of the above systems. Over the short short term, they have shown excellent results in reducing nitrates, bacterioplankton generation, and minimal reduction of phosphates. This method of using PHA polymer based biodegradable plastics for nutrient control is still young in the hobby and is one of those areas where skeptical reef keeping should still apply.

 


Fine example of a beatifully maintained azoox aquarium with the use of ozone, automated feeding and water changes by Mike Cao.


With time, patience, good planning and husbandry practices in hand, azooxanthellate corals are possible to keep in the home aquaria. Looking toward the next installment, I would like to discuss basic stocking and selection of azooxanthellate corals plus integrating them into them to a photosynthetic aquarium.


References:

Brahmi, A.C., Meibom, D.C., Smith, J., Stolarski, S., Auzoux-Bordenave, J., Nouet, D., Doumenc, C., Djediat, I., Domart-Coulon 2010. Skeletal growth, ultrastructure and composition of the azooxanthellate scleractinian coral Balanophyllia regia Coral Reefs 29:175-189

Fabricius, Katharina E. 1995. Flow-dependent herbivory and growth in zooxanthellae-free soft corals. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 1290-1301

Fabricius, K.E., Benayahu, Y., Genin, A. 1995. Herbivory in Asymbiotic Soft Corals. Science. 268: 90-91

Richter, C., Wunsch, M. 1999. Cavity-dwelling suspension feeders in coral reefs-new link in reef trophodynamics. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 188: 105-116

Tsounis G., Rossi S., Laudien J., Bramanti L., Fernandez N., Gili J-M., Arntz W. 2005. Diet and seasonal prey capture rates in the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum L.). Mar. Biol.,

Widdig, A., Schlichter, D., 2001. Phytoplankton: a significant trophic source for soft corals? Helgol Mar Res 55:198-211

 

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超cool,对了,我之前还介绍过一个azoox的论坛。上图那个冰箱就是其中一牛人发明的滴定方法,在大陆NPS大多很便宜,不过喂食超麻烦。
你回的好快啊。之前介绍的论坛链接有吗?你发的帖子太丰富了,这个论坛还不太知道怎么搜索。。。
http://www.azoox.org/phpBB3/portal.php 这个就是,介绍的文章在旧系统,没有导过来,我已经很久没翻老外的文章了,时间都花在写程序上面,ShaYang才是真正的文章达人。搜索在右上角就有,或者在你的最新动态的右侧。
这篇文章好精彩!baboon原来翻译的那篇在哪里?还有最近的一期TOTM也是NPS
谢谢链接。就是看了TOTM那个才开始对NPS有兴趣的。
@kittyworm 开多个缸吧,自少省了灯的钱,也就是省了水冷,而且色彩很丰富。
有在考虑串联一个小缸养NPC,不知道行不行的通。还有就是要找个适合的位置。。。
还是搞个小的单独养吧各方面都好控制,换水量也小。
我觉得可以,值得一试。泰国佬大缸也有太阳花。
额,串联到阳台的计划直接给家里人否定掉了,墙上不让打洞汗。
偷偷打就好了,家里不是你作主吗?
河蟹河蟹,家庭需要和谐
大事我做主,打洞这种小事做不了主哈
我上NPS和Z论坛搜索了一下,好像没有人用Z来搞NPS
太强大了~这不是一般的费精力

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